Shale is the most abundant sedimentary rock type on Earth, comprising almost three-fourths of the entire sedimentary rock mass on the planet.
Early spring offers unique challenges for maintaining the integrity of erosion and sediment controls on construction sites. During the winter, vegetation is dormant, the ground is frozen, and substantial snowpack is formed. When warmer temperatures and spring rain arrive, these conditions can have negative impacts on erosion and sediment controls if SWPPP measures are not properly implemented.
Clay soil that expands beneath a structure after construction can cause upward heaving of slabs and footings, resulting in buckling of foundation walls due to excessive lateral forces on the walls. Identification of expansive soil during the design phase of a project is important, so that mitigation measures may be implemented during construction to prevent future slab and foundation distress.
Concrete has been utilized for thousands of years as a building material and is now ubiquitously used in most of society’s infrastructure, including buildings, foundations, dams and levees, parking garages, bridges, water tanks, pipes and culverts, floors, sidewalks, and roads.
Mercury in flooring represents a concern due to the potential for emission of mercury vapor to surrounding areas of a building. Mercury is a neurotoxin and exposure can have various health effects.
Aging concrete structures, such as parking garages or building foundations, often exhibit signs of distress. Cracking, spalling, delamination, and exposed or corroding reinforcing steel are some common examples.