Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) are a group of man-made chemicals, including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), used in the production of a wide variety of consumer goods. PFAS have been commonly found in food packaging, household cleaning products, stain repellents, pesticides, and fire-retarding foam.
Concrete Strength is the most common performance measurement used by engineers when designing buildings and other structures and identifying compressive strength of in-place concrete is used to determine the performance of materials in their service condition or for rehabilitation and evaluation.
Suspect or known asbestos-containing material (ACM) can be encountered in a disturbed condition or may be disturbed unintentionally during work activities. If an identified ACM could be disturbed during a project, appropriate engineering controls must be implemented for abatement of the ACM.
Shale is the most abundant sedimentary rock type on Earth, comprising almost three-fourths of the entire sedimentary rock mass on the planet.
Early spring offers unique challenges for maintaining the integrity of erosion and sediment controls on construction sites. During the winter, vegetation is dormant, the ground is frozen, and substantial snowpack is formed. When warmer temperatures and spring rain arrive, these conditions can have negative impacts on erosion and sediment controls if SWPPP measures are not properly implemented.
Clay soil that expands beneath a structure after construction can cause upward heaving of slabs and footings, resulting in buckling of foundation walls due to excessive lateral forces on the walls. Identification of expansive soil during the design phase of a project is important, so that mitigation measures may be implemented during construction to prevent future slab and foundation distress.